I think you have had this sort of conversation 100 times in the past and have thought all the moves on the chess board thrice over!
With regards to German allies-
Turkey and Italy and USA you are spot on.
With regards to UK -more or less spot on but there could have been a swing to UK's neutrality instead of UK being in the triple alliance.
With regards to other potential allies, my thoughts were more towards benevolent neutrality rather than military ally, on land Germany was not really as weak as feared by Jr. Moltke and if UK was not in the game, France could not blockade and these neutrals would sell Germany the required Food and other Goods.
Pre- 1905, the Japanese army was mostly armed and trained by Prussian Officers and there was healthy exchange and mutual respect between Prussia-Japan as both shared a martial culture and a strong attachment to the Monarch. So there could have been a alliance or neutrality if Germany had given up its tiny islands in the pacific, they were anyway not relevant economically.
In many ways- Adolf Hitler understood the needs of Germany better than any of the Chancellors after Bismarck, in an alternate universe-
Germany should have shunned colonies and made only a cruiser fleet with a small battleship force to tackle the potential enemies in the Baltic( Lord Fisher feared such a Cruiser fleet as it would have been deadly to English Commerce)
With this- UK may have turned more benevolent and there will be more money to invest in the army (of course, socio - politico reasons meant army numbers would remain more or less same as were but with even more machine guns and artillery).
Germany's best bet was to have neutral UK, preferably benevolent; benevolent Swiss, Scandinavia and Low countries and an all out war with Russia so as to create a BREST-LITOVSK scenario.
As for all the faults of Wilhemine Germany (raised post WW2 mostly) and lack of true democracy- Bismarck gave it universal male franchise, universal education, healthcare, pension, disability payments, protection of jobs much before the UK thought of it (Germany pre WW1 was not Russia as is portrayed wrongly, there was no GESTAPO in Wilhelmine Germany - it did not such repressive institutions and nor was it Anti-Semite or Reactionary like France or Austria)
As an aside- in 2002-2003, almost 90 years after the start of the GREAT WAR, UK went to war with Iraq even though UK is supposed to be the best democracy in the world (hell in my own country, India- our constitution is a word for word copy of UK's unwritten constitution) even though there were huge protests in the streets of London. Wilhelmine Germany could never dream of doing that! (else 1905 war against Russia would have happened)