In the war production screen there is a tiny figure in the upper right corner of each unit being built. That's the approximate number of turns left. When you go to the town where a unit is being built and select that unit, the number of days left is indicated when you hover the mouse over its picture.
That is an approximate, because circumstances can hurry or slow production each turn. There is a post somewhere in the forums, where this gets explained.
Fortifications are not as useful as you might think. Never hide a significant number of men in them, because they can be trapped and starved to death inside. Forts are useful for supply transportation and to make your opponent dedicate a significant number of troops, if he/she wants that region. The redoubt RDG gets refreshed every year, when used.
I personally build forts only early on as Confederates in key positions that I don't want to have overrun in 1861 and put just enough troops in them to serve that purpose. Later in game their zone of controll comes in handy, thats about it in large.
As measure against raiding you better put a cheap unit on every junction especially as Union. Let them entrench. Entrenchment protects your troops just as well as forts on higher level. Start entrenching early in the game at key positions and put a cheap batallion of 6lbs with them to achieve high level entrenchment. As for the little icon, you will get used to spot them soon. There is also a way to hide stacks. Press F7 for the strategic map. On the right side there are four buttons for that purpose.
Do read the Points to Know - CSA http://www.ageod-forum.com/viewtopic.php?f=331&t=43086
. Useful for the Union, too.
Stockades are of limited use. They can extend supply lines in campaigns far west e.g.. Development level is by large important only for supply throughput and velocity of troops. With a few exceptions.
There is a set of filters wich I personally always saw as sufficient. Strategic map 'F7', supply '2', allegiance '4' and weather '8' being the most important imho.