Sunray wrote:By the way, this Forums is dedicated to "Generals Biographers", so it could be a perfect place to post bigger biography files!Cheers
This is what I'd done already (for the US generals - still partial) :
William W. AVERELL
Averell was a career cavalry officer. He was given commanded of a mounted brigade in the Peninsula campaign and at the battle of Fredericksburg. He then ascended to division commands and claimed victory against the Confederate cavalry at Kelly's Ford. He was relieved from duty for poor performance during a cavalry raid in the battle of Chancellorsville. He still fought a serie of minor engagements and raids in Virginia at the brigade and division level. He was relieved of command again in Sept. 1864, following a dispute with Gen. Sheridan, and this time was not given another combat command.
Nathaniel P. BANKS
As a political appointee, but with no military experice, Banks was named a
major general and given divisional and departmental command near Washington early in the war. He was routed by Gen. Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley campaign and at Cedar Mountain. In the Gulf area, he led the costly siege of Port Hudson and the dismal Red River campaign.
His field career was rather desastrous but his appointment served its
purpose in rallying support for the war effort.
Gen. Don Carlos BUELL
In Washington in September 1861, Buell helped organize the Army of the
Potomac under McClellan. He then led the Army of the Ohio into Tennessee and took a notable part in the battle of Shiloh. He lost his field command for
failing to follow up the retreating CSA after the battle of Perryville.
Ambrose E. BURNSIDE
Burnside, as commander of the Rhode Island militia, was one of the few experienced officers of the North and ideally qualified for an important command at the outbreak of the Civil War. Within a month, he ascended to brigade command at First Bull Run then successfully led a Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the expeditions against the North Carolina coasts and eventually accepted to take command of the whole Army of the Potomac. His urged attack toward Richmond was countered in a costly defeat at Fredericksburg, however. Burnside was then assigned to command the Department of the Ohio until the spring of 1864, when he commanded again a Corps in Virginia. He later received the blame for the fiasco of the battle of the Crater and was relieved of command.
Burnside also invented a breechloading carabine which was extensively used during the war.
Benjamin F. BUTLER
At the outset of the war, Butler’s contingent of Massachusetts militia was one of the first to reach Washington. He then restored order in secessionist Baltimore and was named military governor of New Orleans. There his highhanded rule infuriated the people of the South and earned him the name "Beast". He suffered several defeats as commander of the Army of the James and was removed from active command in Dec. 1864.
George A. CUSTER
Custer distinguished himself by his personal bravery in aggressive cavalry actions and became brigadier general at the age of 23, despite having no direct command experience. He fought at Gettysburg, was promoted to division command and took part in most cavalry actions of Virginia.
This distinguished war record has been overshadowed in history by his role and fate in the Indian Wars of 1876, however.
Jefferson C. DAVIS
Davis was promoted to division command in 1861 and fought at the battles of Pea Ridge and Corinth. He then went on sick leave, but he killed a superior officer during his convalescence. He returned to active duty and avoided conviction for this murder because the Union Army desesperatly needed capable field commanders like him. He never received the second star of a major general though.
As a career officer defending Fort Sumter, Doubleday fired the first US shot of the war. He was promoted to brigade then division command in Virginia and led his men into the deadliest fightings at Antietam. He later played a pivotal role in the Battle of Gettysburg where his Corps was essentially destroyed as a combat force. He held no further active command.
John C. FREMONT
As a General, Fremont's major Civil War contribution was more political than military when he focused Union attention on the role emancipation should play in the North’s war policy by his (unprecedented and unauthorized) "proclamation" of 1861. Lincoln, who was very concerned by the support of the slave-holding borderstates, revoked this proclamation and removed Fremont from command. He was very popular however and Lincoln gave him another appointment at the head of the army’s new Mountain Department. He then suffered a severe defeat during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign and was eventually relieved at his own request when ordered to serve under Gen. Pope.
En tant qu’officier général, la contribution principale de Frémont a été plus politique que militaire lorsqu’il attira l’attention de l’Union sur le rôle joué par l’émancipation dans la politique militaire du Nord grâce à sa "proclamation" (sans précédent et sans autorisation) de 1861. Lincoln, très soucieux de conserver le soutien des états-frontières esclavagistes, révoqua cette proclamation et démit Frémont de son commandement. Compte tenu de sa grande popularité, Lincoln lui confia encore la direction militaire du nouveau Département des Montagnes. Il subit cependant une grave défaite pendant la campagne de la vallée de la Shenandoah et demanda lui-même à démissionner lorsqu’il dut servir sous les ordres du Général Pope.
Quincey A. GILLMORE
By the time the Civil War began, Gillmore was a 1st Lt. of the Corps of Engineers. He was greatly admired when he captured Fort Pulaski in April, 1862, using the new rifled artillery. Such fortifications (called third system forts) were considered invincible. He helped to bring about the capture of Morris Island and Fort Wagner as well as the destruction of Fort Sumter. He also spent many years after the war to improve fortifications and harbours on the Atlantic coast.
Lorsque la guerre civile éclata, Gillmore était un Lieutenant du Corps du Génie. Il devint célèbre en capturant le Fort Pulaski en avril 1862, grâce aux nouveaux canons à tube rayés. De telles fortifications (connues sous le nom de forts du troisième système) étaient considérées comme invincibles. Il participa ensuite à la capture de Morris Island et de Fort Wagner ainsi qu’à la destruction de Fort Sumter. Après la guerre, il se consacra pendant plusieurs années à l’aménagement des fortifications et des ports de la côte atlantique.
Ulysses S. GRANT
When the war began, Grant helped recruit Illinois volunteers and was appointed Colonel. After serving in different lesser commands, he commanded Union forces as a General then as General-In-Chief since March 1864. Grant had an intuitive knowledge of topography and never became confused in directing large bodies of men. His self-reliance and rapidity of thought enabled him to move troops in the presence of an enemy and contributed no small share to his successes. He has been described by military historian as the greatest general of his age and one of the greatest strategists of any age. In 1869 he was elected president of the United States.
Lorsque la guerre éclata, Grant participa au recrutement de volontaires en Illinois et fut nommé Colonel. Après avoir assumé différents commandements subalternes, il commanda les forces de l’Union, d’abord en tant que Général, puis, dès 1864, en tant que Général-en-Chef. Grant avait un sens inné de la topographie et n’était jamais troublé lorsqu’il devait diriger de grandes masses d’hommes. Son assurance et sa rapidité de penser lui permettaient de manœuvrer en présence de l’ennemi et ont contribué pour beaucoup à ses succès. Il a été décrit par des historiens militaires comme le plus grand général de son temps et un des plus grands stratèges de tous les temps. En 1869, il fut élu président des Etats-Unis.
Henry W. HALLECK
In the first days of the Civil War, Halleck's reputation as a military scholar earned him the rank of major general, making him the fourth most senior general in the Army. He commanded the Department of the Missouri and of the Mississippi. President Lincold appointed him general-in-chief in 1862, but Halleck was more a bureaucrat than a field commander and he was unable to impose his instructions to his subordinates. After two years he was relegated to chief of staff where he very effectively supplied, equipped, and reinforced the vast U.S. armies.
Winfield S. HANCOCK
When the Civil War broke out, Hancock was quickly promoted to brigade command. He assumed the command of a division at Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, then commanded the II Corps with distinction at Gettysburg where he was severely wounded. He participated in the Wilderness Campaign and in the Richmond Campaign but never regained full mobility and his former energy. Hancock was noted for his personal leadership.
George B. McCLELLAN
George McClellan had been observer in the Crimean War and had a large
experience of the European armies. He organised the famous Army of the
Potomac brilliantly but was constantly overestimating the strength of the
enemy facing him and was often reluctant to fight. He had some minor
successes in his Peninsula Campaign but the general outcome of his action
was negative and his command was transferred to John Pope. He was later
restored to active command the Maryland Campaign, but
failed to win a decisive battle. He relinquished command again in Nov. 1862
and was not given another.
McClellan was a brilliant engineer and a highly capable military organizer
but simply not an army commander.
Despite never having commanded troops in combat, McDowell was promoted to Brig. Gen. in the first days of the war and given command of the inexperienced and unready Army of Northeastern Virginia. His overly complex strategy let to the disaster of First Bull Run. He was later blamed again in part for the defeat of Second Bull Run and was not given another major combat command.
Malgré qu’il n’avait jamais commandé de troupes au combat, McDowell fut promu Brigadier Général dans les premiers jours de la guerre et placé à la tête de l’armée de Virginie du Nord-Est, inexpérimentée et mal préparée. Ses plans exagérément complexes provoquèrent le désastre de First Bull Run. Il fut à nouveau blâmé pour sa participation dans la défaite de Second Bull Run et n’obtient plus de postes importants.
James B. McPHERSON
McPherson was Grant's Chief Engineer and played an important role in the capture of Fort Henry, Fort Donelson and Corinth. He was promoted to Corps command in the Vicksburg campaign, and commanded the Army of the Tennessee in the Atlanta campaign. He was killed in the Battle of Atlanta, on July 22, 1864.
George G. MEADE
Meade was a military engineer at the outbreak of the Civil War and was assigned to brigade command, then led competently a division in the Maryland Campaign. In the Battle of Antietam, Meade was given command of a Corps over other generals his superior in rank. He played a crucial role in the battle of Gettysburg, but was criticized for not aggressively pursuing the
Confederates during their retreat. He commanded the Army of the Potomac under Grant, but was overshadowed and frustrated by the direct supervision of the general-in-chief, who received most of the credit for the campaigns of 1864 and 1865.
William S. ROSECRANS
After some engineer duty in McClellan's staff at the begining of the war,
Rosecrans was promoted to brigadier general. His decisions proved extremely
effective in the West Virginia Campaign, but he received no credit for his
plans. He thus requested a transfer to the West theater, where he ably led
the Army of the Mississippi and the Army of the Cumberland. He was relieved
of command after his deafeat at Chickamauga and eventually was given command of the Department of Missouri until wars end.
A national hero after the Mexican War and a candidate to the presidential election of 1852, Scott (who was called "Old Fuss and Feathers" because of his devotion to military pomp and protocol) was 74 when he took command of the Union armies at the outset of the Civil War. He was then suffering from different infirmities and weighed more than 300 pounds, but he conceived the strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would eventually be used to defeat the Confederacy. Blamed for the Union's dismal failures in the first months of the war, Lincoln accepted Scott's offer to resign on November 1, 1861.
Héro national après la guerre contre le Mexique et candidat aux élections présidentielles de 1852, Scott (qui était surnommé “le vieil amateur de cérémonie” à cause de son attachement pour le protocole militaire et les parades) était âgé de 74 ans lorsqu’il prit le commandement des armées de l’Union au début de la guerre civile. I souffrait de diverses infirmités et pesait 150 kg, mais il élabora la stratégie connue en tant que Plan Anaconda, grâce à laquelle la Confédération fut finalement battue. Scott fut accusé des graves échecs subis par l’Union dans les premiers mois de la guerre et remit sa démission à Lincoln, qui l’accepta le premier novembre 1861.
William T. SHERMAN
Sherman volunteered for service in the Union Army when the War started. His military career had repeated ups and downs but he is one of the most famous Northern General, receiving both recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy and criticism for the harshness of the destruction policy he implemented in conducting total war against the South. In that sense, he has been described by military historian as the first modern general. He is also noted for his absolute refusal to be drawn into politics.
Sherman se porta volontaire pour entrer dans l’armée de l’Union lorsque la guerre commença. Sa carrière militaire connu des hauts et des bas, mais il reste un des Généraux nordistes les plus célèbres, à la fois admiré pour sa maîtrise exceptionnelle de la stratégie militaire et critiqué pour la dureté de la politique de destruction qu’il a appliqué dans un guerre totale contre le Sud. C’est en ce sens qu’il est considéré par les historiens militaires comme le premier général moderne. Il est également connu pour avoir toujours refusé de se laisser entraîner dans la politique.
George H. THOMAS
Thomas was promoted in rapid succession in the first months of the Civil War. In command of an independent force, he defeated an early Confederate offensive campaign in eastern Kentucky at Mill Springs, gaining the first important Union victory of the war. He led the Army of the Cumberland to the victory at Chattanooga and Nashville and, at the same time, managed the logistics and engineering for his entire army group.